|Chapter 6: Basic Political Terms and Concepts|
A system of government in which leaders are not subjected to the test of free elections. A form of power based on consensus regarding the right to issue commands and make decisions. A system of government in which the legislature is divided into two chambers, an upper and lower house. BUREAUCRACY A type of administration characterized by specialization, professionalism, and security of tenure. CHECKS AND BALANCES A system of government in which power is divided between the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government, and these powers check and balance each other. Legal membership in a community known as a state or independent country. COERCION
A system of government in which leaders are not subjected to the test of free elections.
A form of power based on consensus regarding the right to issue commands and make decisions.
A system of government in which the legislature is divided into two chambers, an upper and lower house.
A type of administration characterized by specialization, professionalism, and security of tenure.
CHECKS AND BALANCES
A system of government in which power is divided between the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government, and these powers check and balance each other.
Legal membership in a community known as a state or independent country.
COERCIONA form of power based on forced compliance through fear and intimidation.
A federal system of government in which sovereign constituent governments create a central government but balance of power remains with constituent governments.
The fundamental rules and principles by which a state is organized.
The belief that governments will defer to the rules and principles enshrined in a constitution and uphold the rule of law.
A system of government based on public decisions made by citizens meeting in an assembly or voting by ballot.
The body which formally chooses the president of the
A small group of people with a disproportionate amount of public decision-making power.
A group whose common identity is based on racial, national, or religious association.
A small group of elected officials who direct the policy process, and oversee the vast array of departments and agencies of government.
A system of government in which sovereignty is divided between a central government and several provincial or state governments.
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
The person in effective charge of the executive branch of government; the prime minister in a parliamentary system.
An individual who represents the state but does not exercise political power.
Rights thought to belong to all people simply because they are human beings.
A form of power based on the ability to persuade others to share in a desired objective.
The initiation of legislative action on a particular issue by way of a voters' petition.
The power of the courts to declare legislation unconstitutional (ultra vires).
The branch of government with the power to resolve legal conflicts that arise between citizens, between citizens and governments, or between levels of government
Enforceable rules of conduct.
The branch of government responsible for making laws for society.
Belief in the "rightness" of rule.
An activity of interest groups aimed at influencing governors and the public to achieve a favorable policy decision(s).
(Great Charter) A document signed by King John in 1215, conceding that the king is subject to law.
Individuals whose common identity creates a psychological bond and a political community.
A form of government in which a minority rules outside the law. ombudsman. An official with the power to investigate complaints against government administration
Another term for an advisory referendum.
A voting decision based on assigning victory to the largest number of votes, not necessarily a majority.
Attitudes, values, beliefs, and orientations that individuals in a society hold regarding their political system.
An organized group that makes nominations and contests elections in the hope of influencing the personnel and policy of government.
The interaction of organized political structures in making and administering public decisions for a society.
The process by which political culture is transmitted from generation to generation.
A process of conflict resolution in which support is mobilized and maintained for collective action.
A form of government characterized by popular sovereignty but exercised within a constitutional framework to prevent the oppression of the minority by the majority rule.
Supreme authority residing in the consent of the people.
The ability to get other individuals to do as one wants them to do.
An electoral system in which the share of seats won closely matches the share of popular votes received.
The ability of voters in a constituency to remove their elected representative from office by means of a petition and new election.
A decision on policy proposals by a direct vote of the electorate.
RULE OF LAW
Belief that all actions, of individuals and governments, are subject to an institutionalized set of rules and regulations.
SEPARATION OF POWERS
The separation of powers between executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.
The highest or supreme political authority.
Combination of people, territory, and sovereign government.
A modern form of despotic rule in which the state undertakes to remake society according to an ideological design.
A form of government in which one person rules arbitrarily.
A system of government in which a single sovereign government rules the country.